Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease
The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are generally mild to start with, but they get worse over time and start to interfere with daily life. Read how the symptoms can progress.
The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are generally mild to start with, but as more brain cells are damaged over time the symptoms get worse and start to interfere with a person’s day-to-day life. This makes them different from the changes that lots of people have as they get older, such as being a bit slower at thinking things through or forgetting something occasionally.
There are some common symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, but no one’s experience will be exactly the same as anyone else’s.
For most people, the first signs of Alzheimer’s are problems with their memory – in particular, difficulties recalling recent events and learning new information. This is because early on in Alzheimer’s the damage is usually to a part of the brain called the hippocampus. This has a big role in day-today memory. However, the person’s memory for events that happened a long time ago is not usually affected in the early stages.
As Alzheimer’s disease progresses, memory problems will usually affect someone’s daily life more and they may:
- lose items (such as keys and glasses) around the house
- forget a friend’s name, or struggle to find the right word in a conversation
- forget about recent conversations or events
- get lost in a familiar place or on a familiar journey
- forget appointments or significant dates.
As well as memory difficulties, people with Alzheimer’s are also likely to have – or go on to develop – other problems. These include problems with thinking, reasoning, language or perception such as:
- speech – they may repeat themselves or struggle to follow a conversation
- seeing things in three dimensions and judging distances (visuospatial skills) – going up or down stairs or parking the car might become much harder
- concentrating, planning or organising – they may struggle with making decisions, solving problems or carrying out a sequence of tasks (such as cooking a meal)
- orientation – they may become confused or lose track of the day or date.
A person in the earlier stages of Alzheimer’s will often have changes in their mood. They may become anxious, depressed or more easily annoyed. Many people lose interest in talking to people, or in activities and hobbies. These changes can be challenging for both the person with dementia and those close to them to live with. Anyone finding things difficult should ask for support from a GP or other professional.
Normal ageing vs dementia
Are you worried about your memory? Read more about the differences between normal aging and dementia symptoms.
As Alzheimer’s progresses, problems with memory loss, language, reasoning and orientation get much worse. A person with Alzheimer’s disease will need more day-to-day support.
Some people start to believe things that are untrue (having delusions) – for example, being convinced that someone is stealing from them. Less often, people see or hear things that are not really there (having hallucinations).
Many people with Alzheimer’s also start to behave in ways that aren’t normal for them. These might include becoming agitated (for example, being very restless or pacing up and down), calling out, repeating the same question, having disturbed sleep patterns or reacting aggressively. This can be distressing and challenging both for the person and anyone caring for them. The person may need treatment and support for these behaviours which is separate from any treatment specifically for memory problems.
In the later stages of Alzheimer’s disease someone may become much less aware of what is happening around them. They may have difficulties eating or walking without help, and become more and more frail. Eventually, the person will need help with all of their daily activities.
How quickly the disease progresses, and the life expectancy of someone with Alzheimer’s, vary from person to person. On average, people with Alzheimer’s disease live for 8–10 years after the first symptoms. However, this varies a lot, depending especially on how old the person was when
they first developed Alzheimer’s.
How dementia progresses
Each person experiences dementia in their own way, but the way the condition progresses can be seen as a series of stages. Find out about the early, middle or later stages of dementia.
Around 1 in 10 people with dementia have more than one type at the same time. This is called mixed dementia. The most common form of mixed dementia is Alzheimer’s disease with vascular dementia (caused by problems with the blood supply to the brain). The symptoms of this kind of mixed dementia are a mixture of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.
Atypical Alzheimer’s disease
In some people with Alzheimer’s disease, memory problems are not the first symptoms. This is called atypical Alzheimer’s disease. It is still caused by plaques and tangles, but the first part of the brain to be affected is not the hippocampus.
Atypical Alzheimer’s disease is not common in people diagnosed when they are over 65. Only around 1 in 20 people over 65 with Alzheimer’s disease have this atypical type. However, it’s more common in people diagnosed when they are under 65 (early-onset Alzheimer’s disease – see ‘Who gets Alzheimer’s disease?’). Up to one-third of people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease under 65 have atypical Alzheimer’s.
The atypical forms of Alzheimer’s disease are:
- Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) – this develops when there is damage to areas at the back of the brain. These areas process signals from a person’s eyes and help with spatial awareness. This means the early symptoms of PCA are often problems identifying objects or reading, even if the person’s eyes are healthy. Someone may also struggle to judge distances when going down stairs, or seem uncoordinated (for example when they’re getting dressed).
- Logopenic aphasia – this develops when there is damage to the areas in the left side of the brain that produce speech. The person may have problems finding the right word, or take long pauses while they’re speaking.
- Frontal variant Alzheimer’s disease – this develops when there is damage to the lobes at the front of the brain. The symptoms include problems with planning and decision-making. The person may also behave in socially inappropriate ways (such as saying things that other people might find rude) or seem not to care about the feelings of others.
More information on rare forms of dementia
There are many rarer diseases and conditions that can lead to dementia, dementia-like symptoms or mild cognitive impairment.